• TUPEX DEUTSCHLAND
    Oedenberger Straße 149 90491 Nürnberg
    Germany
    Telefon :  +49 (0) 40 87 407 536
    E-mail: germany@tupex.eu
  • TUPEX SVERIGE
    Bergkällavägen 34 192 79 Sollentuna
    Sweden
    Telefon :  +46 8 544 011 11
    E-mail: kundservice@tupex.se
  • TUPEX DANMARK 
    Bispebjerg Bakke 7 DK - 2400 Copenhagen NV
    www.tupex.dk
    Telefon :  +45 30 12 76 32
    E-mail: info@tupex.dk
  • TUPEX ELECTRIC
    Ağaoğlu My Office 212. Taşocağı yolu Cad. 135 İstanbul
    Turkey
    Telefon :  +90 212 564 00 96
    E-mail: Turkey@tupex.eu
  • FINLAND DISTRIBUTOR
    Robert Huberin tie 3 B 01510 VANTAA
    www.tupex.fi
    Telefon :  +358942453033
    E-mail: info@tupex.fi
  • NORWAY DISTRIBUTOR
    Teglverksveien 83, Solbergelva 3056
    www.tupex.nu
    Telefon :  +47 32 993 846
    E-mail: info@tupex.nu
  • TUPEX FRANCE
    Coeur Marais 64-66 Rue Des Archives Paris 75 75003
    France
    Telefon :  +33 7 87 40 62 61
    E-mail: france@tupex.eu
  • BELGIUM DISTRIBUTOR
    Rue du bois thorn 2 /Bte 16 10 80 Bruxelles
    Belgium
    Telefon :  +32 488 58 00 56
    E-mail: belgium@tupex.eu
  • UK DISTRIBUTOR
    5 Arundel St, London WC2R 3DX, UK
    www.tupex.eu
    Telefon :  +44 744 190 80 37
    E-mail: uk@tupex.eu
  • RUSSIA DISTRIBUTOR
    63B Usmanov str. Kazan, Tatarstan Republic, Russian Federation, 420095
    Russia
    E-mail: russia@tupex.eu
     
  • USA DISTRIBUTOR
    South pool & Spa, 12436 FM 1960 West Suite 222 Houston, TX 77065
    www.tupex.eu
    Telefon :  +1 713 423-4663​
    E-mail: usa@tupex.eu
  • TUPEX CANADA
    501 boulevard des laurentides Laval H7G 2V2 Quebec
    Canada
    Telefon :  +15146794284
    E-mail: canada@tupex.eu
  • DISTRIBUTOR
    TWO TOUCH KSA
    8530 Wadi Aqeeq Str. Aziziyah dist. 
    Telefon :  +966 5400 88 304
    E-mail: saudiarabia@tupex.eu
  • TUPEX LEBANON
    Auto Strade Zahrany, 10, Sour
    Lebanon
    Telefon :  +961 3 733 559
    E-mail: middle.east@tupex.eu
  • EGYPT SALES OFFICE
    Mostafa El-Nahaas Str. 27, Nasr City, Cairo
    Egypt
    Telefon :  +20 102 862 7287
    E-mail: egypt@tupex.eu
  • AZERBAIJAN DISTRIBUTOR
    15 Yahya Bakuvi St, Baku
    Azerbaijan
    Telefon : +90 212 564 00 96
    E-mail: azerbaijan@tupex.eu
     

KUNSKAP

Hittar du inte svar så tar vi tacksamt emot dina frågor. kundservice@tupex.se

  • TUPEX "LL Luminaires" (7 years Warranty)
     
     
    New version of TUPEX luminaires. Special "LL" line = long-life luminaires.
    "/LL/" luminaires will have automatically 7 years warranty together with lifetime 100.000 hours L80/B10 and no flicker
     
    L80 :
     
    It means that a minimum of 80% of the luminous flux will be maintained for a defined period given the maximum ambient temperature.
     
     
     
    B10 :
     
    The second part B10 means a minimum of 90% of the luminaires in an installation will respond to the level of maintenance of the defined luminous flux.
     
    Example : If we have a luminous flux of 50 000 hours L80 B10, this means : after 50 000 hours 90% LEDs have a flux less than 80% of the original flux. All LED products from Any-Lamp meet the L80 B10 standard !
     
     
  • Why do we use Samsung LED chip

     

    LED technology has started a new era of innovation and game-changing trends

    affecting diverse applications and lighting industries. In particular, as countries around the world strengthen energy conservation programs and push for related legislation enforcement,

    demand for energy-efficient lighting is on the rise at a rapid pace.

    Tupex aims to achieve excellence as a long life,

    energy saving and eco-friendly light source supplier in lighting applications.

    Samsung’s advanced semiconductor manufacturing expertise serves as a strong foundation to deliver state-of-the-art LED devices.

    Usually we Samsung LED Mid Power LED (0.3W) due to

    • High efficacy
    • Mold resin for high reliability
    • Standard form factor for design flexibility

    Also Chromaticity Region & Coordinate note  Samsung maintains measurement tolerance of: Cx, Cy = ±0.005

     

     

     

     

     

     

  • MOWI - DALIeco BT CONTROL

    OSRAM – DALIeco BT CONTROL

    Light is easy to use
    Plug-and-play app control solutions
    and control units for DALI drivers

    Easy-to-use light management with Bluetooth® interface

    Flexible
    Following the successful OSRAM toolbox approach,
    installation and planning of this energy-efficient system
    is extremely easy and convenient. Components can be
    mounted behind a classic pushbutton in a flush-mounted
    device box or directly into a luminaire.

    Expandable and installation-friendly
    All components are simply interconnected via DALI.
    Sensors and pushbutton couplers are directly powered
    via DALI and do not need additional mains supply. An un
    limited number of standard pushbuttons can be connected.

    Easy light management
    DALI ACU BT offers the following features: Intuitive user
    control of light levels and color temperatures, storage of
    individual scenes and manual override of automatic light
    control at any time via smartphone in combination with
    classic ON/OFF or dimming control by standard push
    buttons.

    Wide variety of applications
    With DALI ACU BT, you can control up to 32 DALI
    LED drivers and up to 4 DALI sensors are supported.
    DALI ACU BT is best suited for individual lighting

     Conference and meeting rooms
     Small and medium-sized offices
     Entrance areas
     Backlighting in signage or ambient lighting applications
     Design luminaires and light objects

  • IK CODE

    The European standard EN 50102 dated March 1995 defines a coding system

    (IK code) for indicating the degree of protection provided by electrical equipment

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

  • IP CODE

    THE DIFFERENT BETWEEN TWO PRODUCTS THE PROTECTION DEGREE  WHICH ONE WILL STAND AGAINEST WATER AND DUST  PER EN60529 WHICH DESCRIPE THE PROTECTION DEGREE   THE DIFFERENT BETWEEN TWO PRODUCTS THE PROTECTION DEGREE  WHICH ONE WILL STAND AGAINEST WATER AND DUST  PER EN60529 WHICH DESCRIPE THE PROTECTION DEGREE

     

    FOR EXAMPLE

    IP  20   FOR INDOOR APPLICATION .

    IP 44 FOR INDOOR APPLICATION (WET AREA).

     IP 65 FOR OUTDOOR AND INDUSTERIAL APPLICATION

     

    SPECIAL FOR BATTH ROOM

    Zone 0

    must be SELV (Separated Extra Low Voltage max. 12Volts) and have a minimum rating of IP67.

     

    Zone 1 The recommended IP rating for lights in this area is IP65.

    Zone 2 A minimum IP rating of IP44 is required in this zone.

     

    Zone 3 (outside zones)

     

    Zone 3 refers to anywhere outside of zones 0, 1, and 2. There is no need to use IP rated fittings in this zone however if there is any chance of a direct water jet being used for cleaning purposes in zones 1, 2 and 3 a fitting rated a minimum of IP65 must be used. It is also sensible to apply an element of common sense.  If a light fitting is within a steamy bathroom but just outside of zone 2, for example, consider if an IP44 light fitting may be more appropriate.

  • Master/slave function & Corridor Function

     

    Master/slave function

    The motion detected by 1 sensor (the master unit) can pass onto other pre-de­ned individuals (the slave units) though RF transmission. The master can trigger unlimited number of slaves as long as within the transmission range.

    Typical Applications

    For staircase

     

    CORRIDOR FUNCTION

    Luminaires with built in corridor function are a very simple and highly effcient way of reducing energy consumption. Wherever light has to be provided 24 hours a day for statutory reasons, the corridor function helps provide the right light, combined with energy-effcient and cost-effective operation. This economical form of 24-hour lighting is ideal .

    It offers 3 levels of light:100%-->dimmed light (10%, 20%, 30%, 50% optional)-->off; and 2 periods of selectable waiting time: motion hold-time and stand-by period; selectable daylight threshold and freedom of detection area.

  • MacAdam

    White Light from LEDs
    Two common ways of generating white light with LEDs are

     1) convert short wavelength optical radiation with a down-conversion phosphor to create a broad emitting SPD

    2) combine multiple narrow-band LEDs using additive color mixing.

    convert short wavelength is most widely used at present is based on the luminescence conversion principle used for fluorescent lamps: a very thin film of yellow phosphor material is applied to a blue LED chip, which changes part of its blue light into white. To achieve the light color required, the concentration and chemical composition of the phosphor material needs to be very precisely controlled. Today, a variety of white tones are possible, from warm white (color temperature 2,700 kelvin, K) through neutral white (3,300 K) to daylight white (5,300K). Other advantages of this method include relatively high luminous fluxes and good color rendering up to Ra 90.

    combine multiple narrow-band LEDs is to mix colored light of different wavelengths (red, green and blue). This method has the advantage of permitting controlled changes of light color, allowing not just white but also colored light to be produced. So RGB solutions are good for dynamic colored lighting applications. Realizing white light by this method also calls for a great deal of expertise because precise control is difficult to achieve with colored LEDs of different brightness and results in white light with a poorer color rendering property – Ra 70 to 80 – than that produced by luminescence conversion. Where white light is required to permit a switch from warm white to cool white for office applications, for example, new technologies combine colored chips with white LEDs. The result is dynamically changing white light with a good color rendering property.

    Historical information

    In the study of color perception, the first question that usually comes to mind is "what color is it?". In other words, we wish to develop a method of specifying a particular color which allows us to differentiate it from all other colors. It has been found that three quantities are needed to specify a particular color. The relative amounts of red, green and blue in a color will serve to specify that color completely. This question was first approached by a number of researchers in the 1930s, and their results were formalized in the specification of the CIE XYZ color space.

    The second question we might ask, given two colors, is "how different are these two colors?" Just as the first question was answered by developing a color space in which three numbers specified a particular color, we are now asking effectively, how far apart these two colors are. This particular question was considered by researchers dating back to Helmholtz and Schrödinger, and later in industrial applications, but experiments by Wright and Pitt, and David Mac-Adam provided much-needed empirical support.

     

    Procedure
    Mac-Adam set up an experiment in which a trained observer viewed two different colors, at a fixed luminance of about 48 cd/m2. One of the colors (the "test" color) was fixed, but the other was adjustable by the observer, and the observer was asked to adjust that color until it matched the test color. This match was, of course, not perfect, since the human eye, like any other instrument, has limited accuracy. It was found by Mac-Adam, however, that all of the matches made by the observer fell into an ellipse on the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram. The measurements were made at 25 points on the chromaticity diagram, and it was found that the size and orientation of the ellipses on the diagram varied widely depending on the test color. These 25 ellipses measured by MacAdam, for a particular observer are shown on the chromaticity diagram above.


    LED Color Difference SDCM & MacAdam Ellipses

    SDCM is an acronym which stands for Standard Deviation Color Matching. SDCM has the same meaning as a “MacAdam ellipse”. A 1-step MacAdam ellipse defines a zone in the CIE 1931 2 deg (xy) color space within which the human eye cannot discern color difference. Most LEDs are binned at the 4-7 step level; in other words, you certainly can see color differences in LEDs that are ostensibly the same color.

    Due to the variable nature of the color produced by white light LEDs, a convenient metric for expressing the extent of the color difference within a batch (or bin) or LEDs is the number of SDCM (MacAdam) ellipses steps in the CIE color space that the LEDs fall into. If the chromaticity coordinates of a set of LEDs all fall within 1 SDCM (or a “1-step MacAdam ellipse”), most people would fail to see any difference in color. If the color variation is such that the variation in chromaticity extends to a zone that is twice as big (2 SDCM or a 2-step MacAdam ellipse), you will start to see some colour difference. A 2-step MacAdam ellipse is better than a 3-step zone, and so on.

    It should be noted that SDCM ellipses are often shown in the CIE colour space diagram at a ten times magnification (see image to left) because they would otherwise be too small to be seen clearly when viewed in the complete CIE diagram.
    MacAdam’s experiments demonstrated that the size of an SDCM ellipse is quite small, which means that the human vision system is very good at discriminating colour differences when viewing two light sources at the same time. If we consider the size of the 1-step SDCM ellipse at an arbitrary 3,000K colour temperature, the CCT range is ±30K, and the corresponding u’v’ range (the chromaticity coordinates in the 1976 CIE Uniform Colour Space) is ±0.001. In other words, if we view two LEDs with a CCT difference of more than 60K, the chances are that we will see a colour difference. 
    The table below relates the number of SDCM ellipse steps to the range of CCT and chromaticity coordinates for a 3000K colour temperature light source.

    SDCM    CCT @ 3000K    ΔUV                                       
    1x           ±30K                     ±0.0007
    2x           ±60K                     ±0.0010
    4x           ±100K                   ±0.0020
    7-8x       ±175K                   ±0.0060


    Within the lighting industry, reference is often made to the standard IES LM-79-08 “Approved Method of Electrical & Photometric Measurements of Solid State Lighting Products" published by the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA). This in turn references the American standard ANSI C78.377-2008 “Specification for the Chromaticity of Solid State Lighting Products” which places white light LEDs used for illumination into standard colour groups which all have the same “nominal” correlated colour temperatures (CCTs). The size of the ANSI C78.377 nominal CCT quadrangle is a 7-step MacAdam ellipse. A 7 to 8-step SDCM is currently representative of the variation in chromaticity of high brightness white LEDs used for illumination. 

    A perfect LED module assembly line will produce batches of modules operating within a once MacAdam Ellipse. There will be no discernible difference between any of the module outputs. LED modules produced at this level are used where colour performance and accuracy between fixtures is vitally important. Typically, good LED modules are produced within a two to three MacAdam ellipse range, here will be a visual difference if you look for it, but it is minor and generally considered to be acceptable in commercial usage.
    Cheaper products will often use LED modules that have a range of MacAdam Ellipses beyond four, some going as high as eight. Fixtures using such modules need to be used with care. There may be general commercial of industrial areas where they are acceptable, but any requirement for colour sensitivity would rule them out
    So when an LED supplier proudly claims to offer you LEDs binned to a 4-step MacAdam ellipse tolerance (or 4xSDCM), keep in mind that this is better than LEDs that are binned to 5-steps but you will still see a colour difference over the range of LEDs supplied to that specification.

  • Optical control

     

     

    Optical control of the light output from a light source is achieved by some combination of
    reflectors, refractors, diffusers, baffles or filters.

    Reflectors

    Three types of reflector are used in luminaires; specular, spread and diffuse.

    Specular reflectors are used when a precise light distribution is required. The shape of the

    reflector and its position relative to the light source determine the light distribution. The most

    common shapes for reflectors are circular, parabolic and elliptical.

    A circular reflector with a point light source at its focus will produce a light distribution of the

    Type , reflections from some parts of the reflector being almost parallel

    while those from parts of the reflector away from the axis are divergent

     

     

    A parabolic reflector with a point light source at its focus produces a parallel beam of reflected

    light, Moving the light source in front or behind the point of focus will cause the

    beam to converge or diverge. The parabolic reflector is widely used in spotlight design either

    exactly, when the reflector is smooth, or approximately, when the reflector is facetted .

     

     

    A parabolic reflector with a point light source at its focus produces a parallel beam of reflected

    light, Moving the light source in front or behind the point of focus will cause the

    beam to converge or diverge. The parabolic reflector is widely used in spotlight design either

    exactly, when the reflector is smooth, or approximately, when the reflector is facetted .

     

    An elliptical reflector with a point light source at one focus will ensure that the reflected rays all

    pass through the second focus . Such reflectors are used in applications which

    need medium-wide to wide LIDC.

    Diffusers

     

    Diffusers are transparent materials that scatter light in all directions. They do serve to reduce the brightness of the luminaire. Diffusers are commonly made of materials that maximise light scatter and minimise absorption, such as

    opal glass or plastic.

    Opal diffuser – creates cosine LIDC by scattering of a light on microparticles which are evenly distributed in basic diffuser material. 

    Prismatic respectively micro-prismatic diffuser – basically these are refractors.

     Geometric structures such as pyramids, hexagons, spherical domes, and triangular ridges create requested LIDC using the refraction law. They are used in luminaires where high lighting quality is requested (UGR – Unifed Glare Ratio; Lavg – average luminance of the luminaire)

  • Luminaire Materials

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Steel

    Many interior lighting luminaires are made from ready-painted sheet steel, white being the

    usual paint colour. Where corrosion is a problem, galvanised sheet steel is used. Where a very

    durable paint finish is required, enamelling is used.

     

    Aluminium sheet

    Aluminium sheet is mainly used for reflectors in luminaires. It can have good reflection

    properties and the physical strength to form stable reflectors of the desired form.

    Cast aluminium

    Cast aluminium is widely used for floodlight housings. Such housings are light in weight and

    can be used in damp or corrosive atmospheres without any further treatment provided that the

    correct grade of aluminium has been used. 

     

    Glass

    Three types of glass are used in luminaires; soda lime glass, borosilicate glass, and very high

    resistance glass. Soda lime glass is used where there are no special heat resistance demands.

    Where high heat resistance, chemical stability and resistance to heat shock are required,

    borosilicate glass is used. High resistance glass has the advantage that it can deliver high heat

    resistance, high thermal shock resistance and great physical strength even in thin sheets.

     

    Stainless steel

    Stainless steel is rarely used for luminaire bodies but it is widely used for many small,

    unpainted luminaire components that have to remain free from corrosion.

     

     

     

     

    Plastics

    There are many different forms of plastic used in luminaires, either for complete housings or

    components. These plastics differ in their transparency, strength, toughness, sensitivity to UV

    radiation and heat resistance.

  • Electrical safety classification

     

    Class I

    Luminaires in this class are electrically insulated and provided

    with a connection to earth. Earthing protects exposed metal

    parts that could become live in the event of basic insulation

    failure.

    Class II

    Luminaires in this class are designed and constructed so

    that protection against electric shock does not rely on basic

    insulation only. This can be achieved by means of reinforced or

    double insulation. No provision for earthing is provided.

     

     

     

    Class III

    Here protection against electric shock relies on supply at Safety

    Extra - Low Voltage (SELV) and in which voltages higher than

    those of SELV are not generated (max. 50V ac rms).

  • The color temperature

    The color temperature of a light source is the temperature of an ideal black-body radiator that radiates light of a color comparable to that of the light source. Color temperature is a characteristic of visible light that has important applications in lighting, photography, videography, publishing, manufacturing, astrophysics, horticulture, and other fields. In practice, color temperature is meaningful only for light sources that do in fact correspond somewhat closely to the radiation of some black body, i.e., those on a line from reddish/orange via yellow and more or less white to blueish white; it does not make sense to speak of the color temperature of, e.g., a green or a purple light. Color temperature is conventionally expressed in kelvin, using the symbol K, a unit of measure for absolute temperature.
     
    Color temperatures over 5000 K are called "cool colors" (bluish white), while lower color temperatures (2700–3000 K) are called "warm colors" (yellowish white through red). "Warm" in this context is an analogy to radiated heat flux of traditional incandescent lighting rather than temperature. The spectral peak of warm-colored light is closer to infrared, and most natural warm-colored light sources emit significant infrared radiation. The fact that "warm" lighting in this sense actually has a "cooler" color temperature often leads to confusion.

     

  • Lifetime

     

     

    Lifetime

    The lifetime of a lamp is usually specified in
    hours. For LEDs, high-pressure discharge lamps as well as fluorescent and compact fluorescent lamps with plug-in base it is given as the rated lifetime. All these light sources degrade, i.e. their brightness diminishes with operation. The rated lifetime (given as L) therefore describes the time in which the luminous flux of the light source falls to the specified value. For general lighting, typical values are L80 or L70. Thus the average rated lifetime of an LED is reached when the luminous flux reaches 70 percent of its value at installation.
    The degradation and failure of LEDs is determined essentially by the let-through current and the temperature inside the LED; in
    the case of modules, the electrical wiring of
    the LED, the ambient and operating temperature and further module characteristics also play a role

  • UGR

     

    What is the UGR value? When is it required and used?

     

     

     

     

     

     

    The abbreviation UGR stands for »unified glare rating«. The UGR value is a dimensionless parameter which provides information about the degree of psychological glare of a lighting installation in an indoor space. UGR values are defined in steps within a scale of 10 to 30.  In DIN EN 12464-1:2011-08 the steps within this scale are 13, 16, 19, 22, 25 and 28. In the final instance these steps express the statistical perception of glare experienced by a large number of observers. So UGR 19, for example, means that 65% of observers »did not really feel disturbed« by the glare. Conversely, of course, this also means that the remaining 35% felt disturbed by the glare. The lower the UGR value, the less direct glare is experienced by the observers.

    The UGR value can only be calculated; it cannot however be directly determined photometrically. Where there are lighting installations with luminaires from which 65% of the light is emitted indirectly and where narrow beam spots or asymmetrically radiating luminaires are installed, then, by definition, it is not possible to indicate a UGR value.

    Contrary to widespread opinion the UGR value is not really a property of a luminaire. Here we are dealing with much more than the interaction of the »brightness level« of the luminous surfaces of a luminaire in relation to the »brightness level« of the surroundings and the position and viewing angle of the observer. The average »brightness« of the light emitting surface of a luminaire is defined in this context as the average luminance of the luminaire and the »brightness« of the background or the surroundings as background luminance.

    The following example taken from a real-life situation demonstrates clearly the influence which the ratio of these brightness levels to each other can have on the glare effect: Imagine that you are driving along a road at night with no street lighting. A car now comes towards you with headlights on full beam. You are blinded by the strong light and are hardly able to keep your eyes on the road. Imagine the same situation on a sunny summer's day. The same vehicle approaches again with the headlights on full beam. Now you are far less likely to be blinded by the headlights. Yet the properties of the headlights have not changed at all. The degree of direct glare results here mainly from the contrast to the surroundings (i.e. the background luminance).

    The position and the viewing angle of the observer also have to be borne in mind. For, if the luminaire is not in the field of vision of a person, then this same person cannot be affected by glare. In certain norms, depending on the field of activity, adherence to UGR thresholds is required. These can be found in the current DIN EN 12464-1:2011-08 under »5 Index of Lighting Requirements«. Since the issue here is maximum UGR thresholds, the term UGRL (Unified Glare Rating Limit) is used. In accordance with DIN EN 12464-1:2011-08 the lighting designer must provide evidence of the direct glare categorization with the aid of the tables of the CIE Unified Glare Rating method (acc. to CIE 117-1995). The purpose of the tabular method is to make it easier for the lighting designer to apply the very complex formula behind the UGR value.

    Limitations of the tabular method when determining the UGR value

    The tabular method is a procedure which is followed in order to determine the UGR value of a lighting installation in a standard room. However, the designer must bear in mind that the »standard room« usually has very little to do with real situations. According to the tabular method the floor has a maximum degree of reflectance of 20%, walls of 30% to 50% and the ceiling of 50% to 70%. White walls or ceilings with a degree of reflectance of 75 to 90%, such as frequently occur in architecture, are not taken into consideration in the tabular method. In the tabular method the observer can be positioned either across or along the luminaire axis. The tabular method does not recognize an angle of vision diagonal to the luminaire axis and is based exclusively on rectangular room geometries. This method must be applied for each individual type of luminaire if different luminaires are present in one room, since each type of luminaire has its own UGR table.

     

     

     

     

    Why is the UGR value shown as a figure in the luminaire data sheet?

    though the UGR value is not in itself a property of a product, nevertheless, in the data sheets of many manufacturers details such as »UGR < 19« can often be found. It is, however, not correct to deduce that this is a luminaire property. Unless the manufacturer provides further details, this figure refers to the UGR value which the luminaire would have in a reference situation with room dimensions of 4H/8H and degrees of reflectance of 20% for the floor, 50% for the walls and 70% for the ceiling. In real situations this value could be lower or even higher.

     

    Conclusion

    Despite the restrictions of the tabular method it is of benefit in evaluating products when comparisons are desired. A luminaire with a UGR value of 16 is, in practice, less likely to cause psychological glare than a luminaire which has the same parameters but a UGR value of 25. Therefore, it is important for the designer to be aware of the limitations of the tabular method. If he wishes to determine the UGR value for a specific position of the observer with greater accuracy, we recommend calculating this with the aid of a software which will then take into account the degrees of reflectance and room geometries as they are in reality. All the luminaires present in the room will also be included in the calculation.

  • LED Construction

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    In essence, an LED consists of a P–N junction, that is, a junction made of  
    P- and N-type semiconductor materials. A P-type material is one which has a defciency of electrons resulting from molecular bonding when forming a crystal. Tis electron defciency is described as electron vacancy or hole so that the P-type material has excess holes which can carry current and contribute to electrical conduction. Similarly, an N-type material has a surplus of electrons arising from its molecular bonding. Tese electrons move freely in the crystal serving as charge carriers. When P- and N-type materials are close together, electrons from N-side fll the holes in P-side, creating anelectrically neutral zone called the depletion region between the two sides. Tis electrical barrier is enlarged or reduced by applying a “reverse” or a “forward” external bias, respectively. Light is emitted in a forward biased diode when injected minority carriers (electrons in the P-region and holes in the N-region) recombine with each other. Light is generated in a narrow wavelength band due to current flowing under forward bias; it is of one color or monochromatic. Te wavelength of the light generated depends on the bandgap energy of the material in which the P–N junction is made.

    LEDs are available in a wide variety of sizes, colors and power ratings and development is proceeding at a rapid rate. Whilst LEDs come in a variety of styles, Figure illustrates two common forms

    The main components of a LED are as follows. The chip of semiconductor material in the center of the lamp may be made of a wide variety of materials. Differing materials result in a different color of light being produced. The chip is mounted onto one of the lead in wires. In high power LEDs the mounting is designed in such a way as to conduct heat away from the chip. The other lead wire is bonded to the chip generally connecting to a very small area close to the actual semiconductor junction. The whole device is then potted in a plastic resin, usually epoxy.

     

    The Light of the Future

     

    Light-emitting diodes are the shooting stars of lighting. Tiny and extremely efficient, they are revolutionizing the world of light – delivering a whole new quality of lighting, addressing an ever growing number of applications and saving a great deal of energy. LEDs are the light of the future and are conquering the realm of general lighting.

     Whether indoors or out, decorative or functional – LEDs (light-emitting diodes) permit solutions today that would have been in conceivable even a few years ago. Starting out as a colored signal indicator, the energy-efficient semiconductors advanced rapidly to become one of the principal light sources for accent and orientation lighting. With white light and intelligent manage mint, LEDs now ensure a high quality of lighting right across the range of outdoor and indoor applications.

    LED technology is regarded as the most important invention in the history of lighting since Edison’s development of the “lightbulb” over a hundred years ago. Never before has so much light come from such a small fitting; never before have light sources worked so reliably for so many years and consumed so little electricity. Even recently, attention still focused on the richness of colour achieved by LEDs; today, high-performance LEDs are transfiguring general lighting.

     

    The many positive characteristics of the light-emitting diode include:

     

    > extremely long life and virtual freedom from maintenance

    > high efficiency

    > white and colored light with good color rendering properties

    > insensitivity to vibration

    > light with almost no heat generation, no IR or UV radiation, no interference with nocturnal insects

    > instant, flicker-free lighting that is infinitely

    dimmable

    > very compact design

    > no mercury content and no end-of-life

    disposal problems.

  • MOWI-LUXeye Sense DALI BT

    Areas of application
    _ Offices
    _ Conference rooms
    _ Training rooms
    _ Corridors
    _ Surface mounting via LUXeye SENSE CM KIT

     

    Product benefits
    _ Automatic start of light regulation after power-on (out of the box function)
    _ Basic functionality without configuration thanks to applied pre-settings
    _ Easy and fast customization of important parameter via screwdriver
    _ V(λ) corrected light sensor element
    _ Predefined and customizable configurations for all applications
    _ Password protection for user and configuration APP access
    _ Easy report generation of all commissioned sensors
    _ Easy report sharing via email
    _ DEMO Mode usable without device

     

    Product features
    _ One DALI broadcast output channel
    _ Daylight-dependent regulation and presence-dependent control of light
    _ Operation via standard pushbutton
    _ Outputs with electronical reversible short-circuit and overload protection
    _ Change of delay time with screwdriver direct at the sensor
    _ Change of lighting intensity with screwdriver direct at the sensor
    _ Halogen free polycarbonate plastic housing
    _ Controller with integrated light and presence sensor, DALI output channel
    _ Presence detection via passive IR element
    _ Light control with app connection via Bluetooth
    _ Light control via smart phone

    Equipment / Accessories
    _ Suitable for up to 20 electronic control gears
    _ Free App for iOS and Android

  • LEED
     
     
    WHAT IS LEED?
    The LEED plaque on a building is a mark of quality and achievement in green building.
    Leaders across the globe have made LEED the most widely used green building rating system in the world with 1.85 million square feet of construction space certifying every day. LEED certification provides independent verification of a building or neighborhood’s green features, allowing for the design, construction, operations and maintenance of resource-efficient, high-performing, healthy, cost-effective buildings. LEED is the triple bottom line in action, benefiting people, planet and profit.
     
    WHY LEED?
    LEED certification means healthier, more productive places, reduced stress on the environment by encouraging energy and resource-efficient buildings, and savings from increased building value, higher lease rates and decreased utility costs. LEED-certified buildings will directly contribute $29.8 billion to U.S. GDP by 2018.
     
     
     
     
     
     
  • MOWI-EasyAir

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

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